Saturday, October 26, 2013


From the German Original Entitled
“Die Philosophie der Freiheit als
Grundlage künstlerischen Schaffens “

(Dornach, 1988; ISBN-3-85704-152-8)


Herbert Witzenmann

Translated by

Robert J. Kelder

Willehalm Institute
Amsterdam 2013

* * *


Foreword by the Translator
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition

Part I

The Philosophy of Freedom
As a Conceptional Work of Art


The Rank of Conscious Awareness/ Concerning Two Possible Objections Against This Publication/ On the Mode of Presentation/ A Further Objection


The Unity of Form and Content as Meditative Soul Guidance/ The Compositional Basis of the Two Parts/ The “Word” Character of "The Philosophy of Freedom”/ The Merit and Nature of Psychic Observation or Introspection/ The Compositional Arrangement of the Two Main Parts of the Work


“The Philosophy of Freedom” as a Universal Study of Man/ The Ontological Levels of Creatures/ The Ontological Levels of Man/ The Anthropological Outcome


Thinking Volition and Volitional Thinking, Their Different Unfoldment/ The Stages of Volitional Unfoldment as Compositional Forms of the First and Fourteenth Chapter/ The Stages of Volitional Unfoldment in the Fourteenth Chapter/ On the Community-building Function of Individual Judgements


The Composition of Both parts in Relation to the Stages of Volitional Unfoldment/ The Anthropological Composition  of the First Part/ The Anthropological Composition  of the Second Part/  Schematic Summary/ On the Mode of Presentation


The Basic Character of the Work, Its Demand on the Reader and the Riches It Has in Store for Him/ The Third Main Part


Consonant and Vowel Qualities in “The Philosophy of Freedom”, Man as Word, “The Philosophy of Freedom” as Book of the Human Word, Its Middle Part/ Surface Structure and In-depth Structure/  The Anthropological and the Cosmological Point of View/ Body, Soul and Spirit/ Cognition and Corporeality, Freedom and Spirituality, Speech and Soul Life


The Philosophy of Freedom
As a Path of Schooling for the Artist

1. Renewed Objection Against Conscious Awareness

2. Necessity of Discarding the Accustomed Consciousness-attitude

3. Historical Contemplation and Contemporary Course of Action

4. Exchange-of-Being, Self-awareness/ Prayer/ The Christian Creative Mood

5. The New Artistic Era/ Protection/ The Exceptional Waking State of Mind

6. The Prejudices Concerning the Subjectivity and Objectivity of Thinking/  The Irrepresentability of Concepts/ The Review Exercise/  The Irrepresentability of Percepts/ Transparency Exercise/ Veiling and Unveiling/ Matter and Form/ The Path to the Upper and Lower Gods

7. The Representation as Helper and Teacher/ The Human Form as Cosmic Form/ The Cosmogenic Meditation as the Higher School of Form/ Beautiful Semblance as Higher Reality/ The Metamorphosis of the Particular and the Whole in One Another

8. The Individual Above Us, the Universal Within Us: the Highest Knowledge and the Greatest Experience/ Form as the Universal Human Being, Matter as the World Bewitched/ The Experience of Freedom

9. Schiller’s Aesthetic Anthropology and Social Aesthetics/ The Social Mission of Art/ The Dissolution of the Alloy King

10. The Experience of Form and Humanness as Experience of Destiny/ The Experience of Matter and Freedom as Experience of Re-embodiment of the Spirit

11. Light and Love as the Essence of Matter and Form

12. The Stages in the Path of Schooling of the Artist

First Appendix
The Composition of the Preface to the First Edition of “The Philosophy of Freedom”

Second Appendix
List of Contents of “The Philosophy of Freedom”

Epilogue to the 1st edition

Overview of the Work of Herbert Witzenmann

* * * 

A Plea for Support –
Surmounting Internal Difficulties

A Transpersonal Foreword by the Translator

The first attempt at translating the title, list of contents, the first and last chapter of Herbert Witzenmann’s "The Philosophy of Freedom as a Basis for Artistic Creation" goes back to 1981, when after an initial period of some three months’ work on the first edition, I handed it to the American poetess Daisy Aldan living and working at that time in Dornach, Switzerland,  where I had previously assisted her in her translation and publication of the first edition of Herbert Witzenmann’s work “The Virtues” (Folder Editions, New York). Her comment on my translation was that it was impossible to translate this exposition of Rudolf Steiner’s "The Philosophy of Freedom". Rather than take this as a final answer, I subsequently labored another three months on it and, after submitting it to her a second time, I was pleasantly surprised to hear from her that I had apparently done the impossible! 

But conditions in Dornach at that time were not sufficiently conducive enough to lead to a complete translation.  Herbert Witzenmann as a member of the executive-council of the General Anthroposophical Society and leader of the Section for Social Science and the Youth Section had been forced, due to an apparently insurmountable internal conflict to take a leave of absence from the regular meetings of the executive-council and no longer received any structural or financial support from the Society (his colleagues were barred from using the facilities of the Goetheanum and had to set up a new infra-structure to facilitate the continued work and teaching of Herbert Witzenmann in Dornach and nearby Arlesheim). This inner conflict concerned the in essence still unresolved and largely understood book question dealing with the proper way to represent and publish the work of Rudolf Steiner on the basis of his spiritual testament (for more on this subject see Herbert Witzenmann’s social-aesthetic study “Charter of Humanity – The Principles of the General Anthroposophical Society as a Basis of Life and Path of Training”).

I mention these internal difficulties to give some explanation for the fact that it has lasted almost 33 years for this (updated) partial working translation to see the light of day and to venture the view that, had the conditions been more favorable for furthering the valuable work of Herbert Witzenmann - the only professional philosopher and experienced industrialist on the executive - the situation of the General Anthroposophical Society and indeed that of the world at large would have been in a better state than they are in now. For in spite of the above-described conflict situation, he did follow up in an admirable way the personal advice given to him by Rudolf Steiner to represent and defend his anthroposophy in a philosophical manner by writing a number of outstanding volumes, only very few of which (such as “Intuition and Observation”, “Idea and Reality of a Spiritual Schooling of Man”, “Pupilship  in the Sign of the Rose-Cross” (all sold-out) and more recently “The Just Price – World Economy as Social Organics”) have been translated, but without the necessary support and full backing of the General Anthroposophical Society and its member societies in the English- speaking world, whose only justification for existence consists in furthering results of spiritual research, such as that of Herbert Witzenmann, done at the (Spiritual) Goetheanum.  

After being forced to leave Dornach in 1986 due to the lack of support and moving to Amsterdam, the situation within the Anthroposophical Society in the Netherlands that I came across was in this respect no better than the one I had just left. Interesting in this respect is something that I heard just recently, namely that the well-known Dutch anthroposophist Bernard Lievegoed, at that time the president of the Dutch Society, was asked by the executive–council in Dornach to mediate in their internal conflict between Herbert Witzenmann and the rest of his colleagues concerning the book question. The choice for assigning Lievegoed for this task is questionable, because of the completely different traits of character between him and Witzenmann. 

The former is known, among other things, for his development of a path of schooling he called in his book The Eye of the Needle - Life and Working Encounter with Anthroposophy the way of Saturn, a path not based on thinking but on the will, on doing, which according my reading and some of his critics such as Walter Heijder in “Waarheid en werking” (Truth and Effect, not translated)  and Arnold Sandhaus “Antroposofie willen denken” (Wanting to Think Anthroposophy, not translated) has nothing to do with anthroposophy, which again others, such as the philosopher and medical doctor Ida-Marie Hoek deny, while others have written whole uncritical books on the subject. 

Herbert Witzenmann disqualifies this path of doing, the priority of action over knowledge and thinking, as can be read here in the first chapter, in paragraph 7: “When it is maintained that abilities arise in the doing (after having paid one’s dues or having slaved away under that imitation misnamed “practice”), then this only signifies that that presence of mind which lies in acting out of knowledge is gradually being supplanted by a mechanical and schematic busyness.” Without maintaining that this disqualification of the path of the will applies completely to the path of schooling as advocated by Bernard Lievegoed, it may at least become apparent that he was not exactly suited to mediate in this book conflict with its spiritual roots in the nature of anthroposophy as a being that needs our moral protection. It is therefore not so surprising that, as relayed to me by one of the insiders, that this "man of action" found Herbert Witzenmann to be “hysterical”, a description that is neither supported by this work nor by my own personal observation of the author, with whom I had the pleasure and honor to work for a number of years after having attended his Seminar For Youth, Art and Social Organics in Arlesheim, nearby Dornach for four years in the late seventies.

Again, I only mention these internal, sad karmic difficulties as an explanation for the fact that since my move to Amsterdam in 1986 no support from the society in this country for translating Herbert Witzenmann’s work into Dutch, in spite of several requests over the last 22 years, was given either. This was of course no reason not to attempt to undertake this work and so, with very limited resources, a small number of his works were (partially) translated and published in Dutch. Next to the ones already mentioned, these are: "Geldordening als bewustzijnskwestie - Een nieuw financieel stelsel vereist een nieuw beschavingsprincipe" (Currency as Consciousness - A New Financial System Demands a New principle of Civilization), "Een nieuwe economische orde – Rudolf Steiners social organica” (A New Economic Order – Rudolf Steiner’s Social Organics) and “De onvooringenomenheid van de antroposofie – een inleiding op Rudolf Steiners geesteswetenschap” (The Unbiasedness of Anthroposophy – An Introduction to Rudolf Steiner’s Spiritual Science).

My latest proposal to translate and publish the work of Herbert Witzenmann on social organics (his term for the extended idea of the threefold social organism) to the so-called coordinator of the Social Science Section of the School for Spiritual Science in The Netherlands (where it obviously belongs) was made during a meeting on October 5 last, but (privately and flatly) rejected for reasons that remain unclear or not given, but that may be due to the influence that Lievegoed still enjoys within the Society and the realtively bad name of Witzenmann as being too difficult to read. I had submitted this request along with two other initiatives for working groups in a paper “Werken aan de ziel van de Antroposofische Vereniging – De Vrije Hogeschool voor Geesteswetenschappen” (Working on the Soul of the Anthroposophical Society – The Free School for Spiritual Science”) also published on the closed (but now defunct) website initiated by the coordinator “Netwerk Antroposofie” (but open to members and those interested in anthroposophy). 

On this last meeting and on the previous one, I am writing a review in order to comment on and assist the current efforts underway here to further and enhance the development of the School for Spiritual Science by making the profound writing by Herbert Witzenmann on this subject available; see e.g. the three essays in the Dutch version of his “Charter of Humanity and "Vormgeven of beheren - Rudolf Steiners sociaalorganica - Een nieuwe beschavingsprincipe" (To Create or to Adminstrate - Rudolf Steiner's Social Organics - A New principle of Civilization", which I have partially translated). All in the (idle) hope that it will someday finally be appreciated and supported to some extent. I have interrupted writing this review in order to inform the English-speaking members and friends of the Anthroposophical Society of these developments and to ask for their possible encouragement and support, which is slowly coming forth. 

Someone who has already expressed his support and participation in a possible conference on the work of Herbert Witzenmann in English and/or Dutch is the well-known Australian professor of philosophy Wayne Hudson, who also taught at the University of Utrecht for years and who has 19 books to his name, whom I hereby want to extend my thanks. On this further support will depend on whether I will work on completing this work or devote my energies and time to other current projects undertaken by the Willehalm Institute.

Update: Encouraged by the support given by Tom Last on his site Philosophy of Freeom, I have continued this (working) translation and have added so far the first and second paragraph of the second chapter of Part 1.

Amsterdam, October 26, 2013; last updated August 11, 2017                  Robert Jan Kelder

* * *

Preface to the Second Edition

The new edition contains, next to numerous corrections, a series of elaborations and supplements that bring the train of thought more graphically to the fore.
The main, unchanged purpose of the book is threefold: The high degree of conceptual accuracy and inventiveness in Rudolf Steiner‘s mode of presentation as employed in his "Philosophy of Freedom" is not only to be delineated in terms of form and content, but also the nature of conceptional art shall be gleaned from the chosen example more vitally than can be done by general deliberations. The artistic path of schooling is furthermore to be developed as a meditative and practical autodidactive aid by following how this path of grasping the form-content-unity is transformed into a process of self-discovery.  And finally, the correspondence between free and artistic conscious awareness and its significance for social life as well as for the renewal en strengthening of civilizational energies in general shall be put forward.
The demonstrated correspondence between the conscious awareness of freedom and that of art as well its characteristic significance for Rudolf Steiner’s work as a whole, is the main content of this work. With his reference to a hitherto unknown mode of consciousness, the author believes to make a contribution to the pressing demands of our times and thereby to justify the publication of his work. For upon observing the unsettling symptoms of our public state of affairs, it seems to him that above all two things need to be seriously considered. On the one hand (and herewith there is a fairly general agreement) our problems and our steadily growing self-embroilment therein through our mitigating attempts to solve them demand new insights and in general a new scientific mind-set. On the other hand (and here there is hardly any consensus), the starting-point for a new conflict-resolution awareness calls for a new appraisal or conceptional evaluation of consciousness as such. The author is convinced that only herewith a promising new begin, a truly orientating knowledge and technique can be found.  For the crisis of our times consists of the transition from an application-bound conscious awareness to one that through self-apprehension secures its own autonomy and intrinsic value. Herein the difficulties of our situation, but also its inherent possibilities, fatalities are determined yet also its hopes.

This book takes a stance in this crisis situation in as much as it delineates a new type of consciousness (in its mode of application as well as in the path of schooling leading to its possession). In this preface, only some wide and far-reaching indications about the turning point in which, as many among us will agree, we find ourselves can be made. The evolution of humankind is hitherto, independent of its extra-ordinary epochal differences, one of the application of the human soul forces towards their usefulness. The driving force active hereby in the depth of the development of consciousness furthered its progress into the largely unconscious and unintentional realm on the basis of an inner orientation acquired from the apprehension of the succeeding turn of events. Nevertheless, the application of the human soul forces led with an unnoticed progressive intensity in clarity to the growing characteristic and diffusion of their self-apprehension. To recognize that the task of our civilization consists in a fully conscious understanding of the intrinsic value and meaning of the psychic-spiritual existence of the human being, and that its goal lies in the solution and realization thereof, that is the opportunity and the danger we must face up to. By designating our situation as post-industrial, only one of the manifold modes of appearance of the process of disengagement moving from the application to the self-apprehension of our psychic-spiritual forces is apprehended.
Hereto the following clarification may be added. In contradiction to the afore-mentioned task, our civilization is turning with aggressive intolerance and self-deluded arrogance the operationalistic obsession and superstition into its main distinguishing feature and interest. Every procedure and conduct not certified by the utilitarian stamp of approval guaranteeing success in their application for the sole sake of survival is considered to be fraudulent or mad. If besides that, the annual fairs and auction of useless glittering virtuosities are still tolerated, then only so because the eye-popping, fanatical and snobbish discharge of the dissatisfied crowd is of service to the refreshment of the urges for gratification exclusively considered to be value bearers. The significance of this materialistic world religion lies in the fact that just through the disintegration of all superior attitudinal and sentimental contents proceding from it, it strengthens the faculty of autonomous self-apprehension, thus cooperating in the formation of a soul attitude that gets into an ever growing tension with its own materialistic depersonalizing dogma.

An initial understanding for the significance of our entrance into a post-operationalistic era can be secured by convincing oneself in the sense of this publication through the psychic observation (introspection) of the consciousness-form of reality. The materialistic mode of appearance of reality as something made conscious only through our sense organs is after all a delusion. All true progress can therefore only be described in terms of a change in mental attitude, in development of consciousness. This of course has, be it for other reasons than today, always been the case. Emerging from the depths of consciousness and embracing members of language communities, powerful heralds brought these impulses of expression, which through their swimming action only brought the crest height of their enormous waves to foam up, to ever new shorelines that they covered with their epoch-making deeds. The cultural and psychic-spiritual life was never an epiphenomenon of an economic line of existential self-defense. Not Darwinist adaption to the supremacy of impressions, but the superiority of – be it hitherto not master of itself – expression is from time immemorial the driving force in the history of humankind.

Through the materialistic mortification of the instinctive geniality and its naive confidence in productivity, present-day humanity has manouevered itself into a postion of duress but thereby also in the possibility of searching for the origin and cultivation of new creative sources in its cleared consciousness. To understand and strengthen the ground in which expression can take root (in the double sense of the ground for knowledge and that of action) is its main task and the condition for its survival. There can after all be no other instance of decisive importance, for the human being is the extent of his expressed existence (namely the forwards pressing penetration of the formless perceptible with the formative concepts) and the human being itself is the expression out of this self-creating expression. Therefore the question concerning the world and humanity are in similar ways a question of expression, is the all-encompassing question one of consciousness. The ebb and flood of consciousness-raising broke until now into the therefore receptive human waves of consciousness, - but as of today the human being can and must itself determine its new course. Hence it is necessary to realize above and beyond all else the priority of a new evaluation of conscious awareness. A new phase of consciousness must be reached - and this time not driven by the overwhelming force of events, but with its own inherent powers. This is the case, because the meaning of our existence lies not in exhausting its strenght for the maintenance of its bodily basis, but to incorporate them into the one and only valid context of developing a new epoch of expression. Not in slavish submission to the conditions of human existence, but through free apprehension and confirmation creatively scaling them and grasping the possibilities being offered, that is how the human being finds, sets itself its destination. 

That which is most shaped by consciousness, thus by expression, that which is the least forced into the duress of impressions is the most (even though in this way not known and recognized) contemporary of all things. Such an attitude of consciousness and its practical application, neither determined by its origin nor its goal, but freely floating  in itself, that is what art is.  It transforms consciousness in (insofar present) the material expression and attains from and in that expression new consciousness as well as therein new human selfhood.  In the same way artistically created is the free state of consciousness and the conduct originating from it, which have no other significance than that which they themselves attribute to it – whereby they are the most creative and in the true sense of the word furthering growth, namely progressive.

This is where one becomes aware of the correspondence between the free and the artistic mode of consciousness and their path of performance. At the same time, however, also of the emergencies, demands and hopes of the cultural creative energies, whose vitalization we require by connecting with their sources yet at the same time by elevating them to new heights by a spiral screw-like movement. The new evaluation of conscious awareness  corresponds with and arises from the insight that what in our time is considered least useful is needed the most, what in its intrinsic value is considered the least useful, is the most inspiring and invigorating, thus coming nearest to and most of all serving that which is generally named “practical”.

That which is brought forward here in a more programmatic than a substantiating manner, yet based on a careful treatment of the subject matter, is what this book wants to develop in detail through its reference to a great example as well as through its assistance in the attempt to create a truly contemporary mind-set and its practical applications.

Garmish-Partenkirche, September 1987                                            Herbert Witzenmann

* * *

Preface to the First Edition

This publication is the result of having lived over a period of many years with Rudolf Steiner’s “The Philosophy of Freedom”. It is part of a much more embracing work planned already some time ago and from which the author still hopes to present several further instalments. The present volume is primarily devoted to the artistic undercurrent of the work, but gives, nevertheless, or just for that reason, an introduction to its entire thought content and thereby as well to Rudolf Steiner’s spiritual science in general. For as he himself formulated: “The Philosophy of Freedom” answers those questions fundamental to all knowledge.

The larger work mentioned, to which this publication belongs, is conceived as a kind of commentary on “The Philosophy of Freedom”. To present such a commentary in terms of pedantic explanations or by quoting parallel passages from other parts of the author’s work is not the aim here. Such an undertaking would only amount to a collection of material. Such a compilation would require a similar effort of disclosing its content as was attempted here. These deliberations want to be productive within the work of Rudolf Steiner by participating in the completion of the interior of its mighty architecture, of which only first drafts are available. Therefore, it is not the purpose of this “commentary” to convey knowledge, but to stimulate exercises in the observation of thinking.  That is what present-day humanity requires if it is to find other basic modes of cognition and conduct from the ones dominating it today. That something of a different nature must take their place is beginning to be understood. Yet for want of an overall orientation, one relapses time and again into the position of improving particular institutions and measures without having changed the way of thinking and the situation as a whole. It is impossible to discover new points of view or creative and inventive solutions for specific instances without gaining an entirely new access to the realm of what is real and human.

For that purpose neither observing the world without first gaining new perspectives nor assembling items of knowledge will suffice. What is needed, rather, is an exertion of the kind that changes one’s own being. The path and goal of such a metamorphosis can only be found by way of psychich observation (introspection), which develops an untapped wealth in the depths of one’s soul. In relation to the overal task, the author would like to ask only a small amount of this effort from his reader, whom he does not wish to see as the recipient of a ready-made theory, but much rather as a colleague forging a newly emerging type of consciousness. He believes to convey, however, to to those willing to undertake such an effort, an artistic experience almost second to none.

Pforzheim, December 1979                                                              Herbert Witzenmann

* * *  

Part I

The Philosophy of Freedom
As a Conceptional Work of Art


The Rank of Conscious Awareness/ Concerning Two Possible Objections Against this Publication/ On the Mode of Presentation/ A Further Objection

Artistic creation and scientific cognition seem to repel each other. After all, the latter arises from a mode of consciousness attributed to the comprehension of reality, whereas the former seeks to foreshadow the compelling shape of things to come.  Granted, there are significant examples of artists drawing insight and gaining inspiration for their creative work from the store of scientific knowledge of their day; e.g. Hebbel gained from Hegel, and Wagner received decisive material for sight and song from Schopenhauer, naturalism is inconceivable without the more recent findings of natural science and the surrealists were influenced by Stirner and Nietzsche, dialectical materialism and psychoanalysis. Yet the sources of their productivity they all drew from shafts, which according to them, lay beyond contemplation and description. Indeed, the view that artistic creation and conscious awareness do not tolerate each other is still to this day widely prevalent.  One fails to recognize, however, that thereby more is asserted that can be represented. Two main reasons make this clear. First, no account is given for the fact that there are different forms and degrees of consciousness, modes of appearance and emanation. And secondly, it is forgotten that the criterion of artistry must be found within its own realm and that only from there the question as to the part played by the state of consciousness in the production of a work of art can be asked. Any prejudgement on the role of conscious awareness, before having put it to the test by examining an artwork, is therefore out of place.

The leading conviction of this book concerns cognition as a creative human faculty that is not only derived from an external reality.  The theory that productive cognition plays a formative role in the processes of reality was basically developed by Rudolf Steiner in his “Philosophy of Freedom” and constitutes the starting-point for a universal science of expression. Although he himself has drawn its outline in bold new strokes, this science is in its diversity and diffusion far from being completed.

This publication intends to present a contribution toward this elaboration. The new science of expression marks also the decision on the hitherto unresolved controversy about art and conscious awareness. The idea of a universal science of expression is the effect and at the same time the retrograde foundation of a science of man that does not consider the human being to be merely a receptive and afflicted creature.  Modern natural science, however,   does not even entitle him to the faculty of perception, but only that of affliction through the imperceptible. Productive cognizant, fully conscious man, however, is not only a recipient, but a designer capable of hearkening and speech, perceiving and professing and in the act of self-expression knowing himself and shaping the world surrounding him as an extension of this self-research. As an expressionist not only the producer of ideological epiphenomena, he steers the origins of reality in directions, which without his intervention would not be revealed in the life of soul.


This basic idea of Rudolf Steiner’s spiritual science spreads the greatest possible influence on all possible areas of human interest. Man as a being capable of perception and understanding, in command of language by speaking, forming his own word and shaping the world in the way it was indeed prepared for him in the course of evolution, yet remaining mute until he loosened the tongue from his sense, this being is the beneficiary of a heritage accumulated over a long period of time.  Attaining this in order to possess it, however, is something that he has become capable of only in modern times and the capacity for this attainment  is the conscious awareness revealing and having revealed itself from its own source. Faced with this task, which as long as it remained dormant or even unknown, posed the heaviest of burdens, man today  stands in the course of an ancient tradition.  Its earliest spark of self-understanding (not its origin) lit up in the Aristotelian ( nus poiätikos): cognition apprehending and illuminating itself through its own power (as the highest conscious awareness) is doing and knowing, the archetypal art from which all other arts are derived. As such, it is also the calling of man to fulfill his evolutionary task to become a responsible producer of expression, in short to become an artist.  This means not only a radical refoundation of aesthetics, but much more so entails the demand for an aestheticization of all sciences and in general all things human. All sciences must be understood as fields of a universal study of man and therewith a knowledge of man having become speech, of the Word of Man creating itself in the co-creation of the Word.

Here the bridge must be built to span the gap between science, art and social life, here the outlook for recovering their lost unity brightens up: a universal linguistics has the task and the capability of pointing the way for science to art, for art the way to science and by means of a social-aesthetic cognition and craft the way for social life to become a social work of art embracing all other arts. No doubt, whoever knows conscious awareness only as ephemeral shadow play will treasure the blood rush of the unconscious as a creative stimulus.  In contradiction, this publication as a living testimony to the work to which it is dedicated will set forth that the true nature of cognition is not the conceptually pale but rather creative spirit warmly entering world phenomena, that there exists a conscious awareness, which in comparison to such incitements surfacing from the darkness of the bodily organization is in the brilliance of its formative force second to none.


Such words may well sound unworldly enthusiastic or even outrageous in the face of the desolation brought on by the desire and enjoyment of welfare on the one hand, and the stupefaction of those starving under the most pitiful conditions of poverty on the other. This all the more so since the profiteers and peddlers of so-called “quality of life” are only aware of saturation.  To the concerned observer of these signs of our times such self-delusions lifted by their own melodious sounds of the present into clouds of bliss, appear understandably deaf and dumb to humanity’s utter misery. For who could deny that without clearly recognizing it, humanity staggers from desire to delight and is even deemed happy when, instead of sinking into the bliss of habit, it languishes in delight before desire, - or that it, while perishing under the most abject deprivation (without deciding which is the greater misery), it craves to be rescued only to lose therein its last support. People today forget that they do not live by bread alone (the satisfaction of their needs), even though it remains certain that they cannot do without. The addiction to this forgetfulness demonstrates that upon becoming aware of their condition its representatives throw themselves in the narcosis of enterprise. Through this step they believe to procure themselves a good conscience, since that carries after all the honorable stamp of service to society. Yet only a small dose of introspection is required to notice that this elf-sedation is nothing more than the flight from one’s inner voice, because it avoids the basic question. After all, no matter how puffing and panting this industriousness is, when it does not know the answer to the soul’s hunger, it only contributes to the vicious circle of desires, to the demand for the do-it-yourself, forget-your-self saturation, to that worldwide covetous piety, which makes people - however much it may reflect the impression of happiness – though increasing claims and demands, only more and more unhappy. Yet their true desire, even though in a false state of mind they may deny it, is not satisfaction, but creative discontent, the ultimate, the only true happiness of giving oneself away in doing, for the increase of which one’s efforts are never enough. Already the slightest accomplishment turns thereby into that feast whose most able judges are the children.  For we are born for its celebration and no one, who is not totally confused and lost his bearings, can deny that he has at least occasionally partaken in it – and in doing so became his true self. This festival of giving is true love that loves both its produce as well as its process and finds its satisfaction in the accord between the creative forces of expression and their feed-back. The supreme goal is not “service to society”, but the unconditional giving of oneself for no other sake than the giving itself. But this is just the power and mission of art and that is why it is the healer of all crime. This is what the following deliberations in their way want to address.

These introductory remarks are not meant to solve the problem which lies before them and which present itself in the negative silhouette of the two cases of prejudice brought forward: the supposed incompatibility between artistic creativity and cognitional awareness as well as the supposed priority of the useful over the deed done for its own sake, the preference thus for the satisfaction of bodily bound needs over the free enfoldment of human expressiveness.  Those artists dabbling in dullness may, if need be attach some importance to the cognitional mode of consciousness, if it serves them to stimulate their unconscious driving-force, thus if it adds something of use to their “artistic” creativity, which they consider to be the superior of the two.  These busy-bodies leading a life of luxury are now and then prepared  - provided of course that it not destroy their own concept – to acknowledge the socially engaged, critical art and when, although originally non-utilitarian, it is an accountable entry in the debts and credits of a group or class. Both attitudes, utilitarian in different ways, are thoroughly capable of joining forces against the case for creative cognition.


By means of the previous remarks the author wanted only to reach an understanding with his reader concerning the obligation he has taken up by devoting his work to the subject of artistic creation and at the same time locating his point of departure in the cognitional faculties of man: he thereby commits himself in two ways, since admittedly his purpose is to refute the two above-mentioned objections. Yet he has no intention to do so by conceptional refutation only. Rather, by way of an example he consider unique, he endeavors to show that conscious cognition and artistic creation originate from the same root, ascend to begin with in divergent directions and finally intertwine again at the crown.  What the one receives from the other, how they are mutually indebted – this must become understood in view of the necessity of establishing a new culture on the ruins of the old.

That “The Philosophy of Freedom” does not convey this insight as dead knowledge but as a living power, not to confirm this but to activate it, this is what this publication has in mind. Crucial thereby is that the Gestalt character of the human and the real that form the content of “The Philosophy of Freedom” constitutes at the same time also the compositional principle of its text. A just understanding of this correspondence is not gained when one expects it to be forced upon the text as a schematic division in the usual sense of summarizing similar elements and combining them piecemeal in mere logical sequence.  Instead, the constructional principle is the presentation of an incisive idea, which identical with its literary appearance, unified but not uniform, becomes active  in various stages of metamorphosis according to the content of textual segments. It establishes the framework of the material presented and is in turn rendered understandable by the content of the material. As with every real work of art, matter and form (in this case: thought content and the idea of its development) also condition each other. Neither one occupies a superior position, neither advances in front of the other in the delineating consciousness, rather they condition each other in such a way that they mutually create each other and simultaneously develop out of each other. This general characteristic will only become fully comprehensible through the detailed examination of the composition of “The Philosophy of Freedom. Then the special feature of Rudolf Steiner’s literary conceptional style will come to the fore in the sense that it always, although in alternating reciprocal elucidation, brings forth the same thing twice, in one case as matter, in the other as form.


Once it is recognized that “The Philosophy of Freedom” is in fact and fashion a conceptional art work in great style, one is then also prepared for the second part of this publication. This aims to creating an understanding of the significance that the path of knowledge in “The Philosophy” has for the artist, who desires a modern schooling of his creative potential. Thereby it will become evident what mode of consciousness hitherto unrevealed in this manner can revitalize the human creative powers, whose exhaustion we are becoming aware of with increasing consternation and fear. In this regard, it is the main purpose of the second part to develop the conceptual stages for the development of a free aesthetic awareness in a series of reviving steps. ”The Philosophy of Freedom”, far removed from conveying reproducible knowledge, molds these sequential stages in unity of form and content into an experiential event. Not only an account concerning the real and the human, but a textbook for conscious participation, not only representation, but an inner summoning of a procedure such that it leads those following it into a guided current of events that continues as the activity of the self-taught man.


This publication proceeds as much on the basis of the method applied by Rudolf Steiner as on his own comments on the essential nature of his work as a piece of conceptional art. 

His newly developed line of approach is psychic observation or introspection according to the method of natural science. This method will be applied here to "The Philosophy of Freedom" and thereby also to the inner movements made in following its train of thought.

In the first chapter of the original edition “The Aim of All Knowledge”, which served as a kind of preface and which was placed in the appendix of the second edition, Rudolf Steiner wrote the following about his work, “The composer works on the basis of a theory of composition. This is a sum of knowledge that is a prerequisite for composing. Here the laws of composition are used to serve life, true reality. In exactly the same sense, philosophy is an art. All true composers were conceptional artists. Human ideas became the material for their work and the scientific method their artistic technique. Abstract thinking thereby gains concrete, individual life. Ideas become living powers. We then have not merely knowledge about things, but have turned knowledge into a real, self-governing organism; our actuated consciousness has risen above the level of mere passive reception of truth.
How philosophy as an art relates to human freedom, what the latter is and whether we partake or can partake of it, that is the main question of my book.”

The method of psychic observation will be elucidated in its application during the course of this presentation. What can be said here about it so far is that it assumes one of the main tasks in the contemporary redevelopment of the productive sources of consciousness and that the rise of a new cultural era depends on their fertility. For only the method of self-exploration can help bring the stagnating and apparently exhausted human resources to a breakthrough again and raise the riches hidden in the subconscious to the surface. As the key to the driving-forces of a new mode of consciousness, psychic observation becomes a matter of epochal significance.

With what measure of seriousness and mastery Rudolf Steiner undertook this momentous mission and carried it through  as evidenced in his sense of responsibility and enthusiasm for language, that is what the following presentation endeavors to the bring near to the understanding  experience of the reader. Its aim can therefore not consist in the zealous juxtaposition of things Rudolf Steiner said. The nature of a work of art lies in the unfolding of its inherent reality, which can only be grasped by actively following its thread; hence the goal of this presentation can only be to convey an insight into the technique of conceptional art. It aims to provide a stimulus for its co-execution, towards learning the language it speaks by carefully tuning in to it. Then it will dawn on the willing reader that conceptional art in the light of his meditative practice appears as the conscious mode of freedom. Some indications concerning the social significance of this type of consciousness were already made and shall continue to be made in the course of this publication.

The herewith indicated plan of presentation, the sense and value of which can of course only be ascertained through its implementation, aspires to show that "The Philosophy of Freedom” is a training and meditation manual primarily through its artistic structure and rank. It wants to make evident that the value of that work is misjudged and its purpose misunderstood when its contents are construed to be the conceptual derivation of an abstractly conceived result. Rudolf Steiner himself strongly emphasizes that in his preface to the second edition, “The view discussed here is of such a nature that, once attained, it can become an integral part of the soul. A theoretical answer, which once acquired is merely carried about as a memorized conviction, is not given. To the way of thinking on which this book is based such an answer would only be a plausible one. A finished, ready-made reply of that sort will not be provided, but an experiential field of the soul will be pointed to, where in each instance or moment that the human being needs it, the question is vitally answered anew through the inner activity of the soul itself…. A knowledge that proves its justification and validity through its own existence and the relationship of this existence proper to the whole realm of human soul life appears thereby to be formulated."

That "The Philosophy of Freedom" is a textbook by virtue of both its content in artistic values and its form as a conceptional work of art is none the less made clear in that previously quoted passage, which in later editions was placed in the appendices. The science of freedom introduces, like no other work of Rudolf Steiner, its reader to the practice of meditation. It accompanies him to the heights and depths of meditative experience. The path of schooling is demonstrated in the second part of this publication.


Numerous objections besides the ones already mentioned could be raised against this outline. Only one of these, which takes its starting-point in the strong emphasis given here to the meditative aspect of "The Philosophy of Freedom", shall still be considered here. This objection is especially typical of our time. Many people, it is true, are attracted to training courses of the sort that, while stemming mostly form the East, promise salvation from the distress of conscious awareness. Yet the path indicated here, which draws from the depth of consciousness and leads to its heights, will be rejected by them as misleading; it offers, after all, not a retreat, but rather demands effort and risk. Others meanwhile, who have in mind only their own material welfare and that of others only for their own sake, will reject our aspirations no less vehemently. For (so it is often said) our situation (which for others is so attractive) demands in the face of its pressing needs and threats coming from all directions, quick and decisive action. It leaves us no time for withdrawn aspirations for self-perfection. In action, only in action can the abilities demanded by the tasks awaiting us (beyond the initial and perennial unavoidable mistakes) be acquired: as the saying goes, only in the water do we learn how to swim.

This objection lacks the concepts of activity and community. We are active only in the sphere where we ourselves are acting. Productive as autonomous beings – this we are only in and by virtue of thinking. This is not the case within the dull and dim desires of the will; there, thoughts previously one’s own continue to have their effect as formless creatures of habit or are seized by the designs of others. When it is maintained that abilities arise in the doing  (after having paid one’s dues or having slaved away under that imitation misnamed “practice”), then this only signifies that that presence of mind which lies in acting out of knowledge is gradually being supplanted by a mechanical and schematic busyness. Acting out of knowledge, however, however, does not acquire spirit and value through reproduction but production. And the latter quires the tapping and channeling of creative sources which can only be found within the aesthetic realm of free consciousness. There is no meaningful action without ability, no ability without training. Whoever believes, therefore, to lack the time necessary for creativity training and with a sneering grin doubts that this can spread as the principle of civilization , has missed once and for all the fruitful moment of destiny, whose auspiciousness cannot be gauged by the dull and dimwitted, but only by the clear-cut vision of the trained eye.

But also the concept of community is failing by those who deem it necessary to be stingy with their time. For it is a prejudice to believe that by taking care of one’s own lot, one shies away from helping the poor and needy. Certainly, those dying of thirst need water to be handed them without a moment’s hesitation. The well-being of a community at large, however, is not improved thereby. For this depends, on the one hand, on the communicative processes of the development of consciousness and, on the other hand, on the so-to-speak underground communication of humanity (the rough comparison may be allowed). Humanity constitutes a unity. This may be stated as a result of observation, since the inner unity of concepts (their subjective and objective generality) is evident from the fact that there are no other interconnections than those shown to psychic observation as self-definition of thinking. This spiritual tapestry of being is the universal mind, the all-consciousness, out of which the individual human beings draw their individual consciousness according to the extent of their inner power. Even without external contact they thereby convey the modifications arising from the process of the development of human self-consciousness to the universal consciousness. What the individual gain or spoils thereby in his spiritual being can therefore not remain without significance for the human community (its spiritual unity) as a whole. The faint-at-heart, who deny the social value of this work at one’s own nature, damage the human community and fail to see the responsibility they owe to it.

Yet enough of the examination of modes of representation that deny the true nature of man. After all, nothing more is needed than the evidence that there exists a reality-based consciousness which is different from such short-sightedness. This will be done in this publication. Left up to the reader is to decide which one of these paths of knowledge and experience he gives preference to.


The unity of form and content as meditative soul guidance/ The compositional basis of the two parts/ The “word” character of the “Philosophy of Freedom”/ The merit and nature of psychic observation or introspection/ The compositional arrangement of the two main parts of the work

First a summary will be given of the afore-going indications that are now to be substantiated in detail. The composition of the “Philosophy of Freedom” does not follow the rules normally applied to literary constructions. The value of such rules is not to be denied and for this work they are of secondary importance as well. Compositionally of essence for the subject of this study, however, is the coincidence of its form and its content in a third factor, which does not appear through the means of expression but only in the experience of the reader. This factor, which is not representable by letters but only to be evoked, receives its living strength from the correspondence between de structure of what is presented and its content. The content of this book is on the one hand the nature of reality, and on the other hand the nature of the human being whose calling is to become free. It describes the emergence of freedom and reality from the same root.

From this embracing compositional principle proceed also the individual parts of the presentation. Though this formal attribute is not explicitly indicated as such in the expositions of the content, it ensues from the content itself, the arrangement of which it determines. The formal characteristic of the chapters emerges all the more clearer from their conceptional interrelationship. This is therefore not just a logical one; the mere logical train of thought could also take another course. Instead, logical and aesthetic principle intersect each other in the composition of the work, since both are subservient to the superior principle of its reality- and spirit-based organization. By virtue of the fact that the author, through this art of presentation, offers the reader the possibility to participate in the gradual unfoldment of the text as a happening that does not only belong to the subjective representations of the author, but that represents reality itself through its structural-compositional correspondence  with it, all factors of the soul life of the one thus approached (next to mentally representing also his feeling and willing) are addressed and set in motion. The reader is being confronted in the totality of his humanity with the natural as well as his own reality and invited to enter into their realm. The reading thereby becomes an exercise in meditation, and this all the more so as the inexpressibility of the expression in its inner reenactment becomes conscious. The thus experientially achieved reunion with reality that in the mentally representing faculty of the present-day human being has faded into a schema, is the eye-opener for the higher spiritual world above which the world of the senses spreads its veil. In which way the “Philosophy of Freedom” as aesthetic-meditative soul guidance, as a conceptional work of art is the most reliable and trustworthy guide to the threshold where essence and appearance part, that is what now shall be gradually developed.


This contemplation first turns to the two main parts of the “Philosophy of Freedom”. The compositional significance of the other parts shall be viewed later.

Information about the viewpoints under which the main content of the work in both main parts “Science of Freedom” and “The Reality of Freedom” are arranged is given above all by the Preface to the New Edition (1918) and the First Addition to its third part, “The Consequences of Monism”, in the new edition, i.e. remarks placed at the beginning and at the end of the whole text.

The preface to the new edition points to the two “basic questions of the life of the human soul”, towards which everything is directed what is to be addressed by this book. One of these basic questions concerns the search for a fixed point within the human being, the other concerns that most essential of the manifestations coming forth from such a point, if the latter exists. “One is: Is it possible to find a view of the essential nature of man such as will give us a foundation for everything else that comes to meet us — whether through life experience or through science — which we feel is otherwise not self-supporting and therefore liable to be driven by doubt and criticism into the realm of uncertainty? The other question is this: Is man entitled to claim for himself freedom of will, or is freedom a mere illusion begotten of his inability to recognize the threads of necessity on which his will, like any natural event, depends? […]This book is intended to show that the experiences which the second problem causes man's soul to undergo depend upon the position he is able to take up towards the first problem. An attempt is made to prove that there is a view of the nature of man's being which can support the rest of knowledge; and further, that this view completely justifies the idea of free will, provided only that we have first discovered that region of the soul in which free will can unfold itself.”

In the first addition to the third part of the book “The Consequences of Monism” the following words are found: “The second part of this book (“The Reality of Freedom”) finds its natural support in the first part. This presents intuitive thinking as man's inwardly experienced spiritual activity. To understand this nature of thinking by experiencing it amounts to a knowledge of the freedom of intuitive thinking. And once we know that this thinking is free, we can also see to what region of the will freedom may be ascribed. We shall regard man as a free agent if, on the basis of inner experience, we may attribute a self-sustaining essence to the life of intuitive thinking. Whoever cannot do this will never be able to discover a path to the acceptance of freedom that cannot be challenged in any way. This experience, to which we have attached such importance, discovers intuitive thinking within consciousness, although the reality of this thinking is not confined to consciousness. And with this it discovers freedom as the distinguishing feature of all actions proceeding from the intuitions of consciousness.”

These two indications characterize the relation between both main parts of the work. The first main part describes how the human being emerges from reality and what sort of relation he can assume with regard to it. The second main part describes how the human being can produce out of himself a self-induced reality and what significance this has for the evolution of the world.

There is thus an inverse relationship between both parts; the first part describing the emergence of the human being from existing reality, the second part a new reality arising out of the human being.

From a knowledge of the text and also in view of the afore-mentioned, it may be objected that the theme of the emergence of reality out of the human being, namely its origin in the human act of knowledge, is already to be found in the first part. This objection is only justified, however, in so far as it concerns the ideational-functional intertwining of both parts; it concerns furthermore two different sorts of reality. The cognitional reenactment of the real through the union of percept and concept becomes conscious of reality with the knowledge of each thing or being. In this way, however, the human being also becomes conscious of his own emergence from reality. For cognition gives insight into the natural foundations of human existence, the origin of his physical organism out of matter and processes derived from the kingdoms of nature. Knowledge in its acts, however, is at the same time self-realization. For in the co-formation of reality the human being forms himself as a spiritual being, thus experiencing also the spiritual part of his being in its emergence from the real. This genesis is at the same time, however, also the origin of his faculty for ideational intuitions, from which the new reality sphere of his freedom arises. In that realm the human being moreover also experiences the continuing influence of the original nature-like reality-forming powers. For it is from them that he creates his libertarian being, yet in such a way that he reshapes them in his own being and thereby imparting them a new form-of-being. Thus the formation of reality and freedom interpenetrate each other in both main parts of the work, yet in a different manner.  By the characterization of these parts, it is therefore good to turn one’s gaze, on the one hand, upon  the emergence of the human being from reality, and on the other hand upon the emergence of reality from the human being.

Even though both parts of the “Philosophy of Freedom” unfold their presentation task in a manner that every time, although from different points of view, blends the whole realm of human existence, it is nevertheless in both cases another mode of expression of the total human being that determines the basic character of its remarks. The conceptional development about the “Science of Freedom” in the first part is directed towards the willing human being, that about the “Reality of Freedom” in the second part of the book towards the knowing human being. Both ideations therefore run absolutely counter to a literal superficial understanding of the text. The basic stance of the first part is very clearly marked by the passages already cited: that a “complete justification” for the idea of the freedom of the will can be attained, “if only first the realm of the soul is found, on which the free will can be unfolded”, and that the first part of the work describes “intuitive thinking as inward spiritual activity of the human being.” The basic thought that runs through these deliberations is one of productive-coproductive cognition that is not confronted with a ready-made pre-given reality (either reproducing or even only affected), but that lets this emerge in its process under its own co-emergence. This presentation appeals to the willingness to observe and think and is therefore a schooling of the will, suited to a modern mode of consciousness, a path of training on the meditative culture of spiritual activity. The second part of the work dedicated to “The Reality of Freedom” turns on the other hand to the cognizant human being.  It gives an overview about the motivational structure of volition and how a new cultural impulse arising out of free deeds can be integrated into the old nature-like and nature-based world. Such a situational knowledge is required by the human being, who is developing  his cognitional practice, if he does not wish to wind up on detours or false paths.

That the chapter about “The Idea of Freedom” belongs to the second part of the work is consistent with this characteristic. The chapter about “The Human Individuality” that corresponds with it (according to the symmetry of the textual construction developed in the following pages) is found on the other hand in the first part of the work. The through his cognitional practice self-realizing human individuality becomes fully conscious of the essential features and significance of its deeds when it apprehends the idea of freedom in a world and man overlapping overview.

What is noteworthy by both afore-mentioned cited attributes, which Rudolf Steiner himself has given about the relation between both main parts, is the symmetry of his remarks. The statement in the preface to the new edition at the beginning of the text  corresponds with the second addition that Rudolf Steiner added to the third part of his work. After the remarks in the preface to the new edition about the two fundamental questions  that determine the arrangement of the content and composition of his work, he proceeds to indicate its relation to the spiritual world of experience. He designates the task that he gave himself as the proof “to show that open-minded consideration simply of the two questions I have indicated and which are fundamental for every kind of knowledge, leads to the view that man lives in the midst of a genuine spiritual world.” He who strives for certainty in the realm of the spiritual world of experience will not be able to do without this justification.

In the second addition that Rudolf Steiner placed at the end of his book, this remark corresponds to the following, “In intuitively experienced thinking man is carried into a spiritual world also as perceiver. Within this spiritual world, whatever confronts him as percept in the same way that the spiritual world of his own thinking does will be recognized by him as a world of spiritual perception. This world of spiritual perception could be seen as having the same relationship to thinking that the world of sense perception has on the side of the senses. Once experienced, the world of spiritual perception cannot appear to man as something foreign to him, because in his intuitive thinking he already has an experience which is purely spiritual in character. Such a world of spiritual perception is discussed in a number of writings which I have published since this book first appeared. The Philosophy of Freedom forms the philosophical foundation for these later writings. For it tries to show that the experience of thinking, when rightly understood, is in fact an experience of spirit.” 



This means that whoever recognizes and senses the connection between reality experience and freedom, becomes conscious of the spirituality of reality and that of his own being as well as his spiritual task. An inward spiritual perception is disclosed to him, in which at the same time he himself is pronounced. If this perception, which is at the same time a pronunciation, is to be called “word”, then the following statement is valid: In the cognition of the natural world the human being perceives its spiritual essence, by knowingly  pronouncing it, man perceives and speaks the “word” that in him longs to be pronounced, but that cannot pronounce itself. It is the word of reality. In the apprehension of the spiritual world in his intuitive thinking, man perceives how this spiritual world pronounces itself in him by virtue of him pronouncing it: again, he perceives and speaks the “word”  that wants to give itself to him, but that he can only make his own by his own activity. It is the word of freedom. By virtue of the fact that man perceives and speaks the “word” of reality and the “word” of freedom, he perceives the “word” of his own true being and begins to give it the individual configuration that can only be attained by individuals. He begins to speaks his own word. Between both parts of “The Philosophy of Freedom” sounds as its secret middle that Word which cannot be written down, but only done and experienced, the unifying word of reality and freedom sounding together in the human word-in-essence [or Logos] that is perceived and at the same time spoken.

Rudolf Steiner himself referred to this word character of “The Philosophy of Freedom”: its first part has a consonantal, its second part a vowel character. This can be understood when one considers that all linguistic sounds arise from a combination of articulation and aspiration. The characteristic of the single sounds, however, is determined by the predominance in expression of either one of these components. By the consonants the articulative aspect is predominant, by the vowels the aspirational. Within the characteristic realms, the mixing ratios of both components are, independent of the predominant basic characters, again different. The setting of the articulative organs corresponds in their gesticulational character  to the human metabolism in its relation to the external world, especially the grasping, grabbing movements. The stream of breath coming from within the human organism is unfolded corresponding to the psycho-spiritual experiences of the human being, corresponding to its experiential attitude. Accordingly, the consonants take on predominantly sound imitating, phonetic functions, the vowels predominantly interjectional, experiential ones. This corresponds to the fact that the first part of the work, which deals with the apprehension of reality, has a consonantal basic character, whereas the content of its second part, which deals with the expression of the true human being as a breathing- out in freedom while at the same time a breathing-in of one’s own spirituality, is ascribed a basic vowel character. The true, the synchronically perceived and spoken word-in-essence [Logos] is the harmony of the consonantal and vowel basic character of the state of being.        

* * *



All stages in the path of schooling of "The Philosophy of Freedom" give rise to experiences which accompany the creative work of the artist. They reveal themselves in constantly new configurations and confront him with one riddle after the other. Each time he becomes in different ways consciously aware of matter and form.

The stages of the path which the artist, guided by the experiences of psychic observation according to the "The Philosophy of Freedom", can embark on, are given once more in the following summary:

Experience of Exchange-of-Being (Folding of Hands)
Experience of Awakening and Protection (Waking and Praying)
Experience of Veiling and Unveiling (Upper and Lower Divinity)
Experience of Reality (The Individual above Us)
Experience of Freedom (The Universal in Us)
Social Experience (Dissolution of the Alloy Soul King)
Experiences of Re-embodiment of the Spirit and Destiny (Light and Love)

The foregoing expositions were designed in such a way that those following them traverse a path of training and schooling in the sense and spirit of Rudolf Steiner’s "The Philosophy of Freedom", the goal of which is the experience of re-embodiment of the spirit and that of destiny in light and love. This presentation is therefore also meant as a contribution towards understanding Rudolf Steiner’s indication that real, truly modern art is a way towards knowledge of re-embodiment of the spirit and of destiny  in living experience. At this point the question (here only parenthetically answered) must be raised as to what extent the training course in psychic observation leads to the development of such organs capable of supersensory perception. A thorough answer to this question shall remain reserved for a publication devoted to this theme.  

(To be continued.)

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